Ketamine Resource Articles

Antidepressant Efficacy of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression: A Two-Site Randomized Controlled Trial

Major depressive disorder is among the most disabling illnesses worldwide (1). A substantial proportion of patients do not achieve a clinically meaningful benefit despite multiple antidepressant trials and augmentation strategies (2, 3). Treatment-resistant major depression, defined...

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Synaptic Dysfunction in Depression: Potential Therapeutic Targets

Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that depression is associated with reduced size of brain regions that regulate mood and cognition, including the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, and decreased neuronal synapses in these areas. Antidepressants can block or reverse these neuronal deficits, although typical antidepressants have limited efficacy and delayed response times from weeks to months...

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Safety and Efficacy of Repeated-Dose Intravenous Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression

Ketamine has been safely used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia for many years and also plays a well-established role in analgesia (1). Ketamine is a noncompetitive, high-affinity antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor, with additional effects on dopamine and -opioid receptors.

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Glutamate NMDA receptor antagonists rapidly reverse behavioral and synaptic deficits caused by chronic stress exposure

—Despite widely reported clinical and preclinical studies of rapid antidepressant actions of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, there has been very little work examining the effects of these drugs in stress models of depression that require chronic administration of antidepressants, or the molecular mechanisms that could account for the rapid responses.

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A Randomized Add-on Trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate Antagonist in Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Depression

Existing therapies for bipolar depression have a considerable lag of onset of action. Pharmacological strategies that produce rapid antidepressant effects—for instance, within a few hours or days—would have an enormous impact on patient care and public health.

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A Randomized Trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate Antagonist in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression

: Existing therapies for major depression have a lag of onset of action of several weeks, resulting in considerable morbidity. Exploring pharmacological strategies that have rapid onset of antidepressant effects within a few days and that are sustained would have an enormous impact on patient care

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NMDA receptor blockade at rest triggers rapid behavioural antidepressant responses

Clinical studies consistently demonstrate that a single sub-psychomimetic dose of ketamine, an ionotropic glutamatergic NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) antagonist, produces fast-acting antidepressant responses in patients suffering from major depressive disorder, although the underlying mechanism is unclear1–3. Depressed patients report the alleviation of major depressive disorder symptoms within two hours of a single, low-dose intravenous infusion of ketamine, with effects lasting up to two weeks1–3, unlike traditional antidepressants (serotonin re-uptake inhibitors), which take weeks to reach efficacy..

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Maintenance Ketamine Treatment Produces Long-term Recovery from Depression

Despite substantial advances in the therapeutic options for managing patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD) continues to be a serious public health problem. It is estimated that up to 15% of patients diagnosed with MDD do not respond to conventional treatments and can be classified as treatment resistant.1 Attempting successive pharmacologic trials in the quest for an effective agent increases risk for the patient and can produce significant health, social, and economic burdens.

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